Adsorption-Based Carbon Capture and CO2 Recovery
Complementing Linde’s proven pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and membrane technologies, the HISORP® CC adsorption-based carbon capture solution is the latest addition to Linde’s carbon capture portfolio. It is suitable for a wide range of carbon sources and delivers the CO2 product in the desired concentration and physical state.
Hydrogen and CO2 PSA unit, Leuna, Germany

Adsorption, Membrane and Hybrid CC Technologies

We select, combine and customize the carbon capture (CC) methods best suited to your needs for optimum CAPEX and OPEX.

Growing Importance of CCS Technologies in Climate Mitigation 

Global warming and climate change concerns are intensifying global efforts to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 in our atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies play a strategic role in meeting today’s carbon emission reduction targets. To reach global net zero CO2 emissions by 2050 and the 1.5°C cap stipulated by the Paris Agreement, investments in CCS projects will have to be stepped up significantly.

Increasingly, attention is focusing on the need to remove CO2 from process off-gases and flue gases released by different processes like hydrogen generation, process heating, power generation, chemicals, cement and steel production. In a first step, processes with easy-to-abate sources of CO2 in high concentrations should be addressed. The captured CO2 can be stored safely so that it no longer has a climate-warming effect.

Full Spectrum of Sources and Concentrations

Our broad technology portfolio is suited to a large variety of carbon-emitting sources across a broad CO2 concentration envelope. At the lower end of the spectrum, this includes flue-gases from power generation, off-gases from integrated steel mills or flue gases from steam methane reforming. Applications such as process gases from cement production and process gases from hydrogen production with medium CO2 intensities also benefit from our flexible HISORP CC offerings. And at the high end of the range, CO2-rich streams from oxy-fuel combustion and chemicals production can be easily captured with our technologies. Our flexible portfolio of carbon capture technologies is complemented by HISELECT® powered by Evonik membranes and HIPURE™ adsorptive gas purification units based on pressure swing adsorption (PSA).

With over 40 years of experience in building carbon capture plants and flagship reference projects worldwide, we have the expertise and track record to cover source concentrations anywhere from below 10% to over 85% at various pressure levels and feed flows as high as 500,000 Nm3/h.

Carbon Capturing by Adsorption and Membrane-Separation

Supporting Carbon Dioxide Recovery with Purification and Liquefaction

Once captured, the CO2 can be purified to the level required by various use cases in industry. Many industrial applications such as methanization only require a low level of CO2 in the gas, whereas food and beverage or electronics applications require very high or ultra-pure levels of CO2. The CO2-enriched gas stream can be liquefied for delivery or supplied as pressurized gas to the end-user. Alternatively, the CO2 can be sequestered to mitigate the climate impact of industrial processes that rely on the combustion of carbon-based fuels.

CO2 product utilization

HISORP CC in Focus: 99+% Capture Rates

The latest addition to our carbon capture and storage portfolio, HISORP CC, separates CO2 from process gases over a wide range of CO2 feed concentrations. It combines and synergizes our vast experience and proven performance in pressure swing adsorption (PSA), cryogenic separation and compression to achieve capture rates of up to 99.7%.

Each HISORP CC plant can be individually designed based on mature technologies best suited to meeting individual needs.

Deployment Flexibility

Unlike chemical-based amine systems, HISORP CC is an electrically driven solution. Therefore, the carbon capture process can be entirely powered with energy from renewable sources. Similarly, no steam is required for regeneration so this step does not increase the carbon footprint. Furthermore, no costs for solvent management, makeup and handling are required, making HISORP CC a low-CAPEX and low-OPEX technology with minimal specific energy consumption. HISORP CC is designed for ease of scalability and is suited to new builds and retrofits. The technology can be combined with steam methane reforming (SMR), autothermal reforming (ATR), partial oxidation (POX) or gasification to convert the production of hydrogen from gray to blue. It can be integrated in existing and new plants, for SMR, POX and ATR even with increased hydrogen production.

Looking at post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC), use cases include capturing carbon from the flue gases of SMR units as well as in power, cement, iron and steel plants, and many more.

This adsorption-based technology supports all CO2 product aggregate states (gaseous, liquid and supercritical form) and product purities meeting all industrial applications. As a one-stop shop, Linde provides an all-inclusive CO2 solution bundle.

Decarbonization of hydrogen production with HISORP CC

HISORP CC Can Capture Carbon Along Three Different Process Paths Depending on the Industry and Source of CO2.

PSA unit

Our Benefits

  • Very high CO2 capture rates possible (up to 99.7%)
  • Solely electrically driven, 100% renewable power possible
  • No steam consumption (no additional CO2 footprint)
  • Prefabricated skid-built units with minimized construction effort
  • No handling, no make-up & no disposal of chemicals
  • No sensitivity against oxygen
  • Lowest CAPEX/ OPEX concept
  • Optimum solution for plant retrofits
  • Additional production of hydrogen for hydrogen plant retrofit possible

PSA in Focus: Low Investment and Operating Costs of HIPURE

HIPURE is an innovative and highly efficient way to recover and remove carbon dioxide from process gases such as synthesis gas streams and steelworks gases. In the case of syngas, PSA technology is used to recover CO2 from upstream, high-pressure raw syngas streams or low-pressure off-gas streams generated by steam methane reforming or gasification processes. In many cases, PSA technology is a more cost-effective alternative to conventional washing systems due to its lower investment and operating costs.

In the steel industry, this PSA technology can be used to efficiently remove CO2 in direct reduction or blast furnace off-gases. The process removes maximum amounts of CO2 yet leaves valuable components such as H2, CO and CH4 in the gas stream for further processing. PSA systems for the recovery or removal of CO2 can operate with feed gas pressure levels ranging from approximately 7 to 35 bar(g) and with a minimum CO2 feed gas content of around 10 vol. %. A CO2 PSA unit can achieve a product purity of up to 95 vol. %, with unit capacities ranging from a few thousand Nm3/h to around 300,000 Nm3/h.

HISELECT in Focus: For Tailored and Hybrid Solutions

Rounding out our gas separation process portfolio, HISELECT powered by Evonik is a highly efficient and robust membrane technology. HISELECT membranes are made from hollow fibers. They offer robust performance – even under harsh conditions, excellent chemical resistance and high temperature tolerance. Different HISELECT membrane cartridges have been specially developed for specific use cases. These membranes are an excellent alternative to conventional amine wash systems for acid removal, enabling even natural gases rich in carbon dioxide to be processed in an energy-efficient way without the need for solvents and with a smaller footprint.

HISELECT gas separation membranes are available as a standalone process or can be combined with other separation (adsorption or cryogenic) technologies to create fully integrated, customized hybrid solutions. These can be combined to create the perfect fit for individual purification needs. Depending on the gas composition in question, different membrane cartridges can also be combined to create tailored solutions capable of removing impurities in the gas or concentrating specific components. Designed to optimize both operating and investment costs, these solutions are delivered as packaged, skid-mounted units for easy installation on site or as customized builds assembled on site.

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